1

UI  - 1

AU  - Modesto-Lowe V

AU  - Burleson JA

AU  - Hersh D

AU  - Bauer LO

AU  - Kranzler HR

AD  - Alcohol Research Center, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington 06030, USA

TI  - Effects of naltrexone on cue-elicited craving for alcohol and cocaine

AB  - This study examined the effects of naltrexone (50 mg/day) on mood and self-reported desire for alcohol and cocaine in 26 patients with comorbid alcohol and cocaine abuse/dependence. Two laboratory sessions were conducted, separated by 1 week. During the sessions, subjects viewed 5-min films containing either cocaine, alcohol, or neutral cues. The first session occurred prior to random assignment to medication group and the second session was held after 1 week of double-blind treatment with either naltrexone or placebo. The cocaine-related film induced a greater desire to use cocaine than the desire for alcohol that was induced by the alcohol-related film. This finding was observed using both a simple, one-item analog scale administered during the films and more complex craving questionnaires administered immediately after the films. Collectively, the alcohol and cocaine-related films evoked greater levels of self-reported anxiety and elation, and lower levels of concentration, than the neutral film. Naltrexone did not differ from placebo in reducing the desire to use either cocaine or alcohol

MH  - Adolescence

MH  - Adult

MH  - Affect

MH  - drug effects

MH  - Alcoholism

MH  - complications

MH  - diagnosis

MH  - drug therapy

MH  - Cocaine-Related Disorders

MH  - Comparative Study

MH  - Double-Blind Method

MH  - Female

MH  - Human

MH  - Male

MH  - Middle Age

MH  - Naltrexone

MH  - pharmacology

MH  - Narcotic Antagonists

MH  - therapeutic use

MH  - Psychiatric Status Rating Scales

MH  - Questionnaires

MH  - Severity of Illness Index

MH  - Support,U.S.Gov't,P.H.S.

MH  - Time Factors

MH  - Visual Perception

MH  - physiology

RP  - NOT IN FILE

NT  - UI - 98135561LA - EngRN - 0 (Narcotic Antagonists)RN - 16590-41-3 (Naltrexone)PT - CLINICAL TRIALPT - JOURNAL ARTICLEPT - RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALID - P50-DA04060/DA/NIDAID - P50-AA03510/AA/NIAAAID - T32-AA07290/AA/NIAAAID - +DA - 19980518IS - 0376-8716SB - MCY - IRELANDJC - EBSAA - AuthorEM - 199807

UR  - PM:0009476694

SO  - Drug Alcohol Depend 1997 Dec ;49(1):9-16

 

2

UI  - 2

AU  - Van Ree JM

AD  - Department of Pharmacology, Rudolf Magnus Institute for Neurosciences, University of Utrecht, Netherlands

TI  - Endorphins and experimental addiction

AB  - Animal studies suggest that the endogenous opioid systems in the brain play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of drug dependence. Opioids in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) may be involved in rewarded behaviors and, consequently, in the initiation of drug self- administration that may be associated with addiction proneness. Opioids in the limbic forebrain are particularly implicated in subsequent drug self-administration, which may be associated with craving, maintenance, and relapse. Alcohol intake in monkeys is reduced after treatment with naltrexone in a graded, dose-dependent manner. Naltrexone also is associated with a greater decrease in alcohol consumption after imposed abstinence. These findings support the idea that endorphins play a role in alcohol-drinking behavior, particularly after a period of abstinence during the so-called catch-up phenomenon. Recent studies of recovering alcoholic patients provide evidence that opiate antagonists attenuate the craving for alcohol and decrease and/or postpone relapse into addictive behavior

MH  - Alcohol Drinking

MH  - Animal

MH  - Brain

MH  - metabolism

MH  - Cocaine

MH  - administration & dosage

MH  - Disease Models,Animal

MH  - Endorphins

MH  - physiology

MH  - Macaca mulatta

MH  - Male

MH  - Naltrexone

MH  - pharmacology

MH  - Narcotic Antagonists

MH  - Rats

MH  - Substance-Related Disorders

RP  - NOT IN FILE

NT  - UI - 96435044LA - EngRN - 0 (Endorphins)RN - 0 (Narcotic Antagonists)RN - 16590-41-3 (Naltrexone)RN - 50-36-2 (Cocaine)PT - JOURNAL ARTICLEPT - REVIEWPT - REVIEW, TUTORIALDA - 19961202IS - 0741-8329SB - MCY - UNITED STATESJC - AG9AA - AuthorEM - 199702

UR  - PM:0008837930

SO  - Alcohol 1996 Jan ;13(1):25-30

 

3

UI  - 3

AU  - Gerra G

AU  - Fertonani G

AU  - Zaimovic A

AU  - Rota-Graziosi I

AU  - Avanzini P

AU  - Caccavari R

AU  - Delsignore R

AU  - Lucchini A

AD  - Addiction Research Center, Ser.T.-A.U.S.L. Parma, Italy

TI  - Hostility in heroin abusers subtypes: fluoxetine and naltrexone treatment

AB  - 1. Substance abusers subtypes have been identified considering underlying psychobiological disorder, familial factors, age of onset, legal problems and drug of choice. 2. In the present study the authors submitted 98 male heroin addicted individuals (age 19-28 y) to the Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory (Italian version) and a structured interview concerning social and clinical history; legal problems, age of onset of drug abuse, drug of choice. 3. Serotonergic system sensitivity was evaluated with fenfluramine challenge for PRL assay. 4. Thirty two patients (group A) showed high score for resentment and guilt at BDHI (hostility in), low rate of legal problems, late age of onset, preference for heroin and alcohol. Twenty nine patients (group B) showed high score for assault and irritability at BDHI (hostility out), high rate of legal problems, early age of onset, preference for heroin and cocaine. The other 37 patients (group C) showed aggression score in the normal range at BDHI, no legal problems, late onset of substance abuse, preference for heroin only. 5. PRL responses was blunted in group A (p < 0.001) and significantly decreased in group B (p < 0.05). PRL plasma levels were inversely correlated with HRSD scores. 6. All the patients were included in a treatment protocol with fluoxetine and naltrexone or placebo and naltrexone for 6 months. 7. The treatment was effective in group A with a significant improvement of BDHI results and decrease of craving score, lower level of drop out, lower level of positive urine controls. No significant differences between fluoxetine and placebo effects have been evidenced in patients of group B and C. The present findings suggest that psychopharmacological approach to addiction needs a diagnostic screening for specific subtypes

MH  - Adult

MH  - Aggression

MH  - psychology

MH  - Antidepressive Agents,Second-Generation

MH  - pharmacokinetics

MH  - therapeutic use

MH  - Fenfluramine

MH  - diagnostic use

MH  - Fluoxetine

MH  - Heroin Dependence

MH  - drug therapy

MH  - Hostility

MH  - Human

MH  - Male

MH  - Naltrexone

MH  - Narcotic Antagonists

MH  - Neurosecretory Systems

MH  - drug effects

MH  - physiology

MH  - Psychiatric Status Rating Scales

MH  - Treatment Outcome

RP  - NOT IN FILE

NT  - UI - 97021845LA - EngRN - 0 (Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation)RN - 0 (Narcotic Antagonists)RN - 16590-41-3 (Naltrexone)RN - 458-24-2 (Fenfluramine)RN - 54910-89-3 (Fluoxetine)PT - CLINICAL TRIALPT - CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIALPT - JOURNAL ARTICLEDA - 19961115IS - 0278-5846SB - MCY - ENGLANDJC - Q45AA - AuthorEM - 199701RO - M:RCT

UR  - PM:0008868205

SO  - Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1995 Dec ;19(8):1225-1237

 

4

UI  - 4

AU  - Van Ree JM

AU  - Kornet M

AU  - Goosen C

AD  - Department of Pharmacology, Rudolf Magnus Institute, Utrecht University, The Netherlands

TI  - Neuropeptides and alcohol addiction in monkeys

AB  - Neuropeptides have been implicated in experimental drug addiction. Desglycinamide (Arg8) vasopressin (DGAVP) attenuates heroin and cocaine intake during initiation of drug self-administration in rats. beta- Endorphin is self-administered in rats and a role of endogenous opioids in cocaine reward has been proposed. The present studies deal with voluntary alcohol consumption in monkeys under free choice conditions. Monkeys initiated alcohol drinking within a few days and after a stable drinking pattern was acquired increased their ethanol consumption during a short period following interruption of the alcohol supply (relapse). The alcohol drinking behavior seems under the control of reinforcement principles. DGAVP reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking in the majority of treated monkeys. Initiation of alcohol drinking induced modifications in neuroendocrine homeostasis e.g. an increased plasma beta-endorphin. Both the opioid antagonist naltrexone and the opioid agonist morphine dose-dependently decreased alcohol intake during continuous supply and after imposed abstinence. The monkeys were more sensitive to both drugs after imposed abstinence. The effects are interpreted in the context of the endorphin compensation hypothesis of addictive behavior. It is suggested that endorphins may be particularly implicated in craving for addictive drugs and in relapse of addictive behavior

MH  - beta-Endorphin

MH  - blood

MH  - physiology

MH  - Alcoholism

MH  - prevention & control

MH  - physiopathology

MH  - psychology

MH  - Animal

MH  - Ethanol

MH  - administration & dosage

MH  - Human

MH  - Macaca mulatta

MH  - Male

MH  - Morphine

MH  - pharmacology

MH  - Naltrexone

MH  - Neuropeptides

MH  - Rats

MH  - Reinforcement (Psychology)

MH  - Self Administration

RP  - NOT IN FILE

NT  - UI - 94305281LA - EngRN - 0 (Neuropeptides)RN - 16590-41-3 (Naltrexone)RN - 57-27-2 (Morphine)RN - 60617-12-1 (beta-Endorphin)RN - 64-17-5 (Ethanol)PT - JOURNAL ARTICLEPT - REVIEWPT - REVIEW, TUTORIALDA - 19940812SB - MCY - SWITZERLANDJC - BFZAA - AuthorEM - 199410

UR  - PM:0008032147

SO  - EXS 1994  ;71():165-174

 

5

UI  - 5

AU  - O'Connor PG

AU  - Waugh ME

AU  - Schottenfeld RS

AU  - Diakogiannis IA

AU  - Rounsaville BJ

AD  - Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510

TI  - Ambulatory opiate detoxification and primary care: a role for the primary care physician [see comments]

AB  - To determine the feasibility of primary care-based ambulatory opiate detoxification (AOD) and an optimal regimen, the authors conducted a pilot study of AOD in a medical clinic comparing two regimens: clonidine and clonidine plus naltrexone. Sixty-two opiate addicts who had been referred for AOD had the following features: mean age was 34 years, 75% were male, 74% used cocaine, and 64% shared needles. Initially, 40 patients selected clonidine, 22 clonidine/naltrexone. The groups (clonidine and clonidine/naltrexone) were similar in baseline features, including: craving scores (44/100 vs. 42/100) and withdrawal scores (20/72 vs. 17/72). Overall, 61% (38/62) of initial AODs were successful, including 43% (17/40) of those using clonidine and 95% (21/22) of those using clonidine/naltrexone (p less than 0.0001). Of 45 patients who ultimately completed AOD, 78% (35/45) remained in treatment for at least one month

MH  - Adult

MH  - Clonidine

MH  - therapeutic use

MH  - Comparative Study

MH  - Drug Therapy,Combination

MH  - Feasibility Studies

MH  - Female

MH  - Human

MH  - Male

MH  - Metabolic Detoxication,Drug

MH  - Naltrexone

MH  - Narcotics

MH  - adverse effects

MH  - pharmacokinetics

MH  - Opioid-Related Disorders

MH  - drug therapy

MH  - metabolism

MH  - Physician's Role

MH  - Pilot Projects

MH  - Primary Health Care

MH  - Substance Withdrawal Syndrome

MH  - Support,U.S.Gov't,P.H.S.

MH  - Treatment Outcome

RP  - NOT IN FILE

NT  - UI - 93019668LA - EngRN - 0 (Narcotics)RN - 16590-41-3 (Naltrexone)RN - 4205-90-7 (Clonidine)PT - JOURNAL ARTICLEID - 5R18DA05758/DA/NIDADA - 19921104IS - 0884-8734SB - MCY - UNITED STATESJC - JGIAA - AuthorEM - 199301RO - M:CNRRO - M:LC1

UR  - PM:0001403211

SO  - J Gen Intern Med 1992 Sep ;7(5):532-534

 

6

UI  - 6

AU  - Yanagita T

AD  - Preclinical Research Division, Central Institute for Experimental Animals, Kawasaki, Japan

TI  - [Overview of the progress in drug dependence studies--mainly focussing on psychic dependence]

AB  - The technical term 'drug dependence' was officially adopted by WHO's Expert Committee on Addiction in 1964. Until this, to describe a state of dependence, terms such as 'poisoning', 'habit', 'ism', and 'addiction' had been used from time to time. Until the 1950's, investigators were mainly focussed on the phenomena of physical dependence. However, once the concept of psychic dependence had been introduced, behavioral and neuropharmacological studies on the modes of drug action that produce psychic dependence were activated and have progressed in the last two decades, and among the points clarified by these studies are the following: 1. The critical drug properties that produce psychic dependence are those of rewarding subjective and reinforcing effects of drugs but these effects are not the properties that produce physical dependence, although the development of physical dependence on particular drugs such as opiates may substantially enhance craving for the drugs. 2. The mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine systems in the brain and also the N. Accumbens play a primary or at least a partial role in producing the subjective and reinforcing effects of major dependence-producing drugs such as cocaine, opiates, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and ethanol. 3. Many drugs such as naltrexone, methadone, and some dopamine antagonists and serotonin reuptake inhibitors or antagonists were found to be effective in the pharmacotherapy of the dependence on opiates, cocaine, or ethanol

MH  - Animal

MH  - Benzodiazepines

MH  - therapeutic use

MH  - English Abstract

MH  - Haloperidol

MH  - Human

MH  - Limbic System

MH  - physiology

MH  - Methadone

MH  - Naloxone

MH  - Receptors,Dopamine

MH  - Substance-Related Disorders

MH  - drug therapy

MH  - psychology

RP  - NOT IN FILE

NT  - UI - 93051822LA - JpnRN - 0 (Benzodiazepines)RN - 0 (Receptors, Dopamine)RN - 465-65-6 (Naloxone)RN - 52-86-8 (Haloperidol)RN - 76-99-3 (Methadone)PT - JOURNAL ARTICLEPT - REVIEWPT - REVIEW, TUTORIALDA - 19921211IS - 0015-5691SB - MCY - JAPANJC - F2XAA - AuthorEM - 199302

UR  - PM:0001427500

SO  - Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 1992 Aug ;100(2):97-107